SUMMARY OF CULTURAL RESOURCE INFORMATION
The early 1900s saw great development of Waikīkī with grand residential houses, bathhouses, and hotels. The ancient trail into Waikīkī was made into a formal road in the 1860s, becoming Kalakaua Avenue (Hibbard and Franzen 1986:22). With access Waikīkī began to be preferred destination. However, the extensive ponds throughout Waikīkī proved to be a menace as breeding grounds for mosquitoes. It was estimated approximately 85% of modern Waikīkī, west of Lewers Street and inland of Kalākaua Avenue was under water.
The property was used as duck or fish ponds, and for the cultivation of rice and taro. These well established agricultural and aquacultural systems continued to exist side by side with the more urban, resort oriented aspirations of Waikīkī until the 1920s when the wetlands were eliminated. (Hibbard and Franzen 1986:86)
Due to continued threat of disease from mosquitoes, the Territorial Board of Health decided that an area well over 600-acres in size throughout Waikīkī be filled and the Ala Wai Canal be built to drain the area (Pinkham 1906, Feeser 2006). In 1906 the Board of Heath wrote a report stating:
Whenever in the opinion of the Board of Health any tract or parcel of land situated in the District of Honolulu, island of Oahu, shall be deleterious to the public health in consequence of being low, and at times covered or partly covered by water, or of being situated being high and low water mark, or of being improperly drained, or incapable by reasonable expenditure of effectual drainage, or for other reasons in an unsanitary or dangerous condition, it shall be the duty of the Board of Health to report such fact to the Superintendent of Public Works together with a brief recommendation of the operation deemed advisable to improve such land. (Pinkham 1906:3)
The 1906 report goes on to say that Waikīkī is “deleterious to the public health,” “is low, covered and partly covered with water,” “is not drained at all,” “is incapable of effectual drainage,” and is “in an unsanitary and dangerous condition” (Pinkham 1906:3). Another description stated “the Waikiki flats are a nuisance and menace and must be ultimately abated..They now yield some agricultural income that can never increase materially” (Pinkham 1906:30). It was therefore proposed to “transform it into an absolutely sanitary, beautiful, and unique district; one that will add immensely to the Reputation of Honolulu at home and abroad” (Pinkham 1906:4). The proposed plan called to:
[I]nstall an adequate sewer system and proper surface drainage. The entire Waikiki district, and some adjacent land, under consideration, requires to be raised to a grade ranging from 5-7’ above sea level. Neither the hills mauka [inland] nor the beach can physically or economically furnish the material. (Pinkham 1906:10)
In order to acquire filling material several ideas were raised. “It occurred to seek the material in the rice and banana fields and swamps themselves” (Pinkham 1906:12). Another option was “in order to secure filling material a great lagoon would, as a consequence, be formed” and it “would give the opportunity to create a quite marvelously beautiful, unique district, a Venice in the midst of the Pacific. Within such a lagoon might be anchored the pleasure yachts of our great neighbors…The lagoon would furnish the best boat racing course in the world” (Pinkham 1906:12). Material used to fill in the lowlands of Waikīkī ultimately was secured from “Kapi‘olani Park Lagoon, from Waikiki Reclamation District Lagoon, and from the Ala Moana Channel” (Pinkam 1906:26).
The Ala Wai Canal was constructed from 1921 to 1924, resulting in the three mile long, 250 foot wide, and 10-25 foot deep Alā Waī Drainage Canal (Hibbard and Franzen 1986:93). With the landscape of Waikīkī dramatically altered to be of more commercial use, development quickly ensued.
Land Court Application (LCAp) maps from the early 1900s show the transition of the project area and surrounding lands into city blocks. A 1915 LCAp map (Figure 11) shows ponds, houses, and roads within Kaluaokahi and shows the adjacent land of Kamookahi, where the current project area is located. Notice this map shows several structures near to Kamookahi that are clearly part of Kaluaokahi. Also notice within Kamookahi, the land is being leased to Wong Sing.
Research conducted at the State Archives found a list of applications for public lands dating to 1899 (Foreign Office and Executive File 1899). In 1898, Kwong Sing Company applied for a renewal of lease on Kamookahi, indicating the company had been working the land prior. The application was granted under Lease 525 on April 11, 1899. Additional research found “Mookahi” was leased for “rice or banana land, above the Waikiki road and east of the Pau land. 1.46 acres under lease to Kwong Sing Co. at $60 per annum. Lease dated April 11, 1899, expires March 5, 1915 (Secretary of the Interior 1904:212). This provides details of how the land was used prior to its purchase by A. A. Young in January of 1916 as Grant 6513.
A later LCA map from 1926 shows the beginning stages of development within and in the vicinity of the project area (Figure 12). By 1931 the project area was part of a formal city block and buildings began being constructed (Figure 13). Two currently existing buildings were constructed in 1939, including a two-story building located adjacent to the west side of the project area and a small one-story building adjacent to the southeast side of the project area. The two-story building was designed by Dahl & Conrad and contains a garden court. Construction photos of the project area from 1938 are shown in Figure 14. The buildings are not within the current project area and are therefore considered outside the scope of this project. By the early to mid 1900s the project area became part of the commercial district of Waikīkī that remains to this day.
PUBLIC NOTICE REGARDING IWI KŪPUNA
NOTICE TO INTERESTED PARTIES IS HEREBY GIVEN a historic property (SIHP #50-80-14-7930) consisting of a buried cultural layer, wetland, and disarticulated human remains was documented by Honua Consulting during the course of an archaeological inventory survey for utility improvements at 413 Seaside Avenue in Waikīkī Ahupua‘a, Kona District, O‘ahu TMK:  1-2-6-021: 056, 062 and 065. The project area is located within the city block bound by Ala Wai Boulevard on the north, Kuhio Avenue on the south, Seaside Avenue on the west and Nohonani Street to the east. The project area is approximately 650 feet (200 meters) south of the Ala Wai Canal on the east side of Seaside Avenue. The project area is owned by Cooper Enterprises, Inc. (contact: Honua Consulting, Trisha Watson, Telephone: (808) 392-1617, admin [at] honuaconsulting.com).
Documented human remains include several teeth, hand and foot bones, a portion of a pelvis, a possible clavicle fragment, and cranial fragments. The human remains were found within a secondary context scattered throughout a buried layer of wetland and also found within a cultural layer directly overlying the wetland. The burial is assessed as over 50 years old.
The project is located within the ‘ili of Mookahi or Kamookahi. Background research indicates the ‘ili was Crown land. The project area is located within Grant 6513 to A. A. Young. Adjacent Land Commission Awards (LCA) and Grants within the vicinity include LCA 8559B Apana 29 and Apana 31 awarded to W.C. Lunalilo, LCA 2077 to Kanakaole, and Grant 2785 Apana 8 to C. Kanaina.
The decision to preserve in place or relocate the previously identified skeletal remains will be made by the O‘ahu Island Burial Council and the State Historic Preservation Division (SHPD) in consultation with any recognized lineal and/or cultural descendants, per the requirements of HAR Chapter 13-300-33. Appropriate treatment shall occur in accordance with HAR Chapter 13-300-38 or 13-300-39.
It is hereby requested that persons having any knowledge of the identity or history of these burials immediately contact Ms. Regina Hilo, O‘ahu Burial Sites Specialist, located at 601 Kamokila Boulevard, Room 555, Kapolei, Hawai‘i 96707 (Telephone (808) 692-8026, Fax (808) 692-8020, email: Regina.Hilo [at] hawaii.gov), to provide information regarding appropriate treatment of the burial remains. All interested parties should respond to this notice by filing descendancy claim forms with the SHPD and/or provide information to the SHPD adequately demonstrating lineal descent from the designated burial or cultural descent from ancestors buried in the same ahupua‘a or district.